Lima is a town in Seminole County, Oklahoma. At the turn of the 20th century, Seminoles and Seminole Freedmen occupied the area. The community known as Lima, named for the local limestone quarries, existed at least by 1904 and probably earlier. The post office survived from 1907 to 1957. Established on the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad, Lima was incorporated in 1913.
In 1925 Lima residents won a lawsuit, Moore et al. v. Porterfield et al., in which the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled that because African Americans held the majority of the student population (232 black students to 16 white), the black school in town would be designated as its own independent school district and any white school would be legally considered the racially separate school.
In 1926 the discovery and development of the Greater Seminole Oil Field brought prosperity and more white settlers to the area. Newcomers started a separate village east of Lima, which became known as New Lima. This community never incorporated but built its own school, post office, and businesses.